The association of wine and spices dates back to Roman times. The Romans added honey, pepper, laurel, nuts, and dates. It was eaten at banquets to facilitate digestion. The extension of the Roman empire has made it possible to popularize spiced wines throughout Europe. If this practice existed, it was not only for its taste and digestive qualities but also because the spices and other additions allow the wine to remain longer without oxidizing. In medieval times, variants appeared, sweeter and with several spices like clove and cinnamon. Thanks to the great explorations, ingredients such as cardamom or citrus fruits will enrich the ancient recipe. This tradition is still very popular in eastern France, in Alsace.
This is a recipe from Cyril Lignac, Michelin-starred chef since 2005: https://www.garance.co.nz/french-mulled-wine